When I was a junior high school student in 1961. in the Earth of Science book I was studying, it was stated that the meaning of the word Papua, is “slave belian”, a slave who is traded and traded. This makes sense, because at that time, around the 1560s, a large number of African people whose faces resembled those of the Irianese were forcibly taken away by Westerners, and then sold as slaves in America, and when the island of Irian was discovered by people colonialists from European countries. They thought of Africa and the slaves being traded. The island is even given the name of Papua New Guinea, because in Africa there is a part of the area called Guinea, now Guninea Bisau. Which has its capital in Conacri.
In 1963, when the western part of the island was colonized by the Dutch (West New Guinea), finally captured by Indonesia and strengthened by self-determination, it finally returned to Indonesia’s bosom under the official name West of Irian. Since the beginning, the Indonesian people disagreed with the name of the island of Irian being called Papua, because the meaning was an insult to its citizens, even if the word Papua was interpreted as “a person who is black and has curly hair”, it would not be accepted by the common sense of the Indonesian people. 1960, was a year full of challenges and the spirit of revolution was still burning violently, so every symbol or event that smelled of colonialism had to be crushed or crushed according to the terms of President Soekarno Hatta at that time.
Frant Kaissiepo, the first governor of West Irian, for his love and respect for the Irian people who consist of several tribes and sub-ethnicities suggested that the name West Papua should be replaced with West Irian, and President Soeharto finally added it to Irian Jaya. The name Irian Jaya continued to be used until 2001, or nearly 59 years.
In 2001, the name of Irian Jaya province was changed again to Papua Province. It is not clear what was the reason for President Gus Dur at that time to change the name Irian Jaya to Papua, whereas according to the description above, the word Papua has a bad connotation and tends to be an insult. Perhaps the president also had other references with the same goals from the late president Soekarno or Manuel Kasieppo who had contributed to the struggle to seize West of Irian from the Dutch. It is also possible that the president, Gus Dur, used the name Papua, because the local people considered it a name that had been commonly used for the previous hundred years. We will test the efficacy of such a cultural approach in the context of strengthening the sense of Indonesia for every ethnic group in Indonesia.
Should we take the example of the Province of Indonesia Number 27, the Province of East Timor which has been cared for, stroked, built with all the sweat, suddenly there was an opportunity, then a referendum was held, then Indonesia lost, then the name of the province was changed by the new nation with the name another namely “Timor LOROSAE“? We ourselves may have to say that this is a different case, but this is not necessarily the case according to some members of the community from this ethnic group. That’s why the Papuan problem is not a simple problem, but a very serious one. This paper aims to criticize the model of approach that was used when East Timor became part of from Indonesian territory. If the approach is almost the same as that used in Papua, then we should leave the discussion and suggestions from experts from various scientific fields so that it doesn’t end up like in the past of East Timor.
The times have changed rapidly, and every event in this world events in outer space will be monitored very quickly. There are parts that are known internationally, but not all of this knowledge is published right now. They will wait for the right time for the planned publication to be effective and block the way for reaction for others. The collapse of the Soviet Union was not instantaneous, but based on a structured and massive strategy over several decades. Take the case of East Timor as a small lump of product of the cold war between West and East. After the cold war ended, the parties who previously agreed to the annexation had no burden to defend it anymore and East Timor quickly separated from Indonesia.A DEVELOPMENT APPROACH.
In about 1901, the Dutch of colonial government began to implement what was called the ethiche politiek or politics of reciprocation. The implementation of these ethical policies was based on pressure from various political parties in the Netherlands, intellectual circles and even some bureaucrats in their colonies such as Eduard Deuwes Dekker under the pseudonym Multatuli. The Dutch government in Indonesia built thousands of schools from the SR level (volkschool), middle school (midlebareschool) even up to the university level such as Stovia and the Technical High School in Bandung, then became ITB Institute of Technique Bandung .Hundreds of thousands of Indonesians got education, got information and gave birth to a nation educated class Indonesia, such as Soekarno, Hatta, M. Yamin, Sahrir and others. They would later become figures of the national movement, of course after they received education.
The Netherlands also built various infrastructure, in the form of school buildings, hospitals, railroads, bus and train stations. The Dutch also built roads, dams, bridges and various port docks, and even built cement factories, sugar factories, cigarette factories, herbal medicine factories and made markets. Even the State palace in Jakarta and several other places were also made by the Dutch government.
The development of education, health and other infrastructure is of course a necessity by the government either by the independent State government or the colonial government. Some historians reject this opinion. And then argue that all development by the Dutch is only for the industrial interests of Dutch entrepreneurs while I have a different opinion because the Netherlands never planned to one day leave the Indie Nederland. They run the government in Indonesia the same as that prevailing in Europe they need taxes but also build infrastructure including the world of education, even forming a volksraad such as a representative council or DPR- People’s Representative Council now.
This needs to be pointed out because the education carried out by the colonial government had given birth to this nation’s educated generation who would later oppose the Dutch government and demand independence. The Dutch did not ask Soekarno or other fighters to return the cost of education they had received for criticizing the Dutch government, because the purpose of education is to give birth to an educated generation. When I became a government official in the area, I gave time and scholarships to many doctors and scholars who wanted specialists or Masters and PhD. There are a number of officials who criticize me, that most of those who have finished their school at a higher level will move to other areas. I argue that the knowledge he gets can be applied to other regions, because other regions are not part of this country too? At the most I make a provision that those who have finished with higher education such as specialist doctors apply their knowledge in my area for a maximum of three years.
Likewise, the Indonesian government, for 25 years made East Timor the government of the Province of East Timor, had built thousands of schools, airports, roads, offices and all other infrastructure, while the Portuguese colonialists for three hundred years were only able to build 7 kilo meters of asphalt roads. But then the area separated from Indonesia, then they revived their colonial culture, which means they loved the Portuguese colonial more than the Indonesians who built with full power. They were separated and we don’t demand them to return the cost of education and development where they can. read and write and also be able to do politics for their independence. The goal of education has been achieved, the more educated the people of East Timor who have been colonized by the Portuguese for more than 300 years. They didn’t make calculations with all our development and sacrifices, they just want to be independent. Meanwhile, the Portuguese colonial for 300 years, left the East Timorese in ignorance by feeding them Portuguese and Christianity, then they felt more comfortable under colonial than their Indonesian brothers who were so close, then they revived the language of their masters who had colonized them. Three hundred years.
The province of West Irian, which is now called Papua and West Papua, has been under the government’s attention for more than half a century. Even its current status has become a special region, namely special autonomy with various features including centralization of its development expenditure budget. A lot of infrastructure built many roads, Universities, health, agriculture and mining. Many investors entered, a lot of forest wood was sold, a lot of gold and copper was dredged from the earth, then a number of Papuans shouted for independence, the organization called OPM, the Free Papua Organization. They became smart because of school, Health and privileges. Students from Papua are always prioritized for getting scholarships but they still want independence like us who were educated by the Dutch, but we still demand independence even though we have very different backgrounds.
There are many other examples in the world that have conducted a referendum on independence from a territory, for example the State of Quebec in Canada, the State of Catalonia in Spain. or Singapore from Malaysia. Often the desire for independence is also based on cultural backgrounds, such as language, religion or natural resources and past history. However, there were several independent countries, because their colonizers felt they could not afford to finance these areas such as Suriname and the small Pacific countries. Meanwhile, Indonesia achieved its independence through war struggles and sacrifices since the previous kingdoms, such as the Makassar War, the Aceh war, the Imam Bonjol war or the Padri war, the Diponegoro war, the war in Maluku. These wars in Indonesia were mostly caused by colonial behavior who came with their new Christian religion, while Indonesians had already embraced Islam. The colonial people named their mission as a sacred mission (mission sacre), because they considered the Indonesian population not yet adhering to a religion. certain religion Because of that, the Dutch experts at that time did not apply Dutch law to native Indonesians, except for those of Chinese, Indian, Arab descent and all Western or white peoples. The Netherlands considers the Islam adhered to by the natives as a custom only. Muslims in Lombok are considered to be Sasak, according to the name of the Sasak ethnic group.HOW SHOULD I DEAL WITH OPOSITION GROUPS?
In my interview which was broadcast on YouTube (ADC CHANNEL), about US, “don’t be confused by the formation of US”, I appealed to the government not to negatively view any differences in society. Even in the New Order government, there were already opposition groups, which meant that it was different from the government and criticized the government, such as the Petisi 50 group, there was a democracy forum, and there was a movement that was managed by the PDIP party at that time. Soeharto of course was not happy with this, but in reality the movement was ignored and not banned, including HTI. In 1966 there was also a movement called KAMI and KAPPI, which succeeded in overthrowing President Soekarno along with other elements, likewise in 1998 the New Order regime, fell by students and student’s demonstrations as well as NGO groups and unofficial opposition groups. Those who sit in the current government, from the president to ministerial ministers and the existing party parties are none other than the result of this historical process, the result of these demonstrations, but naturally every ruler sees the condition of himself in power not from in terms of those who are in opposition or who hold demonstrations.
The US, which was initiated by several national figures, has been declared in several cities, but has received interference from a group of people behind which it does not rule out being financed or facilitated by the power or its supporters. This concludes that the government views the organization as a threat and can disturb political stability. My view on this is different, because where the critical movement of anyone must be considered as a political dynamic in a democratic country. The government must leave it as long as it does not conflict with existing laws and regulations. . Likewise, the way to handle the separatist group should be carried out in a cultural manner, by placing them as people who have different views from the government. The Free Papua Organization in its history was the name given by the Indonesian government to separatist groups in Irian (now Papua). The more given a bad title, will not reduce their activity. For example, KKB stands for Armed Criminal Group. Maybe we should just stick to OPM, the Free Papua Organization. Try not to let members of the opposition groups leave the country, so that dialogue can be carried out, in an atmosphere of brotherhood. Compare this with the Navalnyi poisoning case from Russia which Europeans applaud, likewise if Munir had not died on the plane because of being poisoned, he could have won the Nobel Prize for Peace from the group of Western countries that had the prize and would give it to anyone who are considered to play a role in world problems, even though according to the government of their home country they are just dissidents whose job is only to criticize the government. A government that is anti-criticism is a government that is weak and anti-democratic.
NGO groups or individuals like Veronica Koman, should not be pressured very hard, because I believe that if she cares about the plight of the Papuan people, then this should be taken for granted, because of humanism and human rights. The more it is pressed, the greater the attention of the international community on this matter, and in the end, the sharper the criticism from other parties towards freedom of opinion in Indonesia. Human rights activists from young people do not necessarily reflect an anti-Indonesian attitude, because it might be an exaggeration if their passports are questioned and their education funds are asked to be returned. If they live abroad it is very easy for them to coordinate with their peers around the world, and it is very easy to get funds from various donors who are very concerned about human rights issues. Therefore, the method that must be developed by the government is continuous dialogue in an atmosphere of brotherhood.
The government should have a strong stance and cannot be provoked by today’s social media, which does not care about all the negative consequences of excessive counterproductive information. If they are involved in criminal acts, but are deeply concerned with human rights issues the government should choose the middle ground and not eliminate the substance of the original issue. This method is part of the dialogue, while the criminal matter still refers to the criminal procedure law. I took an example of how swiftly the police searched and pursued suspected extortion and harassment at SUTA airport by health workers, even though the case was a complaint offense, while Haarun Masihu and the burning of the Attorney General’s Office building were not completely resolved. This case example is very important to avoid the notion that law enforcement in Indonesia has too much political nuance. Once again we must be careful in responding to any information related to human rights issues, anywhere, not only in Papua. Cases related to political killings and the disappearance of activists such as students, artists and other activities such as Munir, etc., seem to have no end of resolution, will add to the burden on the government in the international spotlight. The Munir case, for example, will continue to be discussed, it has nothing to do with the past, the same as the German Nazi case which is still being tried until now, even though it has reached eighty years.SOME ADVICE.
In handling security issues in Papua, according to the law, it is the responsibility of the police because of internal security issues. However the police can ask the TNI- Indonesian national army for assistance in this matter. Thus, the main responsibility lies with the Police, while the TNI – Indonesian national army is only assisting. This must be observed to avoid trying to pit the police and the TNI – Indonesian national armyagainst each other. Its helpful nature means that it is underlined later, or intelligence assistance, logistical assistance or transportation.
To deal with small problems does not require the deployment of large troops, because this shows the ability of our security apparatus is still weak. Compared to the case of Santoso in Poso, terrorists with less than twenty members with minimal weapons, do you need to deploy one army battalion and the police? Why was Sanana Gusmao, a pretelin figure in East Timor who lived in the capital for decades, not being detected by ABRI- Republic of Indonesia armed forces at that time? That is because he is protected by his family and ethnic group. It is possible that OPM- an independent papua organization members. in Papua will also be the same, therefore it should not be taken lightly by this problem. Therefore, the role of science and technology should be prioritized rather than deploying more troops who are less experienced in guerrilla warfare.
Sometimes we ignore very confidential information. Often Indonesian officials proudly broadcast arms contracts purchased from abroad, such as how many F 16 planes, how many Sukoy planes, how many ships for etc. Isn’t that a military secret? Likewise, if a member of the army or police died in Papua, there was no need to broadcast it in public, because this would add to the enthusiasm of OPM- an independent papua organization members. Likewise, if an OPM – an independent papua organization member died, it did not need to be announced, because they themselves knew who had died. Compare when Iranian missiles hit US bases in Iraq, America never acknowledged how many soldiers were killed, only the coffins were brought to America and planted in the graves of heroes.
One day both parties can match the number of their members who have died or are missing or taken hostage, which can also be used as part of solving the problem when the time comes, in the future. Finally, I am sure that the Papuan problem can be resolved well, if the government listens to and engages the minds of Papuans more. Today, many Papuans are highly educated, experts, professors and other educated people. Isn’t that the result of the development carried out by the government? We don’t need to ask them to return the cost of education that has been given, but involve them maximally in equality as the Indonesian nation to solve various problems that are happening in this country, especially in Papua or in west of Irian.
Many government officials seem to be fully loyal to their country, but if one day there is a secession or refendum, it is not impossible that they will be the first to participate in the separation, as we experienced in Timor Timor. Most of these figures are also involved in various abuse of power and corruption. Therefore groups of human rights activists can be cleaner when compared to the sycophants who surround the leadership of this country. That’s why the leadership of the state should continue to control the behavior and words of their friends that can cause bigger problems later on.
Senggigi, 11 October 2020